Breast cancer can be diagnosed by physical exams such as mammography, ultrasound testing, and biopsy.
Diagnosis of breast cancer –
To determine if cancer has spread, some imaging techniques are being used –
- Chest X-ray – This X-ray checks whether cancer had spread to the lungs.
- Mammograms – It uses imaging techniques on the breasts to determine the area of abnormalities.
- CT scan – In this X-rays are used to check whether cancer had spread to other parts of your body due to breast cancer. It involves a CT of the brain, lungs, or any other nearby area.
- Bone scan – This technique determines whether cancer has spread to the bones or not. A radioactive material of low level is injected into the body, and after a few hours, the images are taken to determine whether cancer has spread to the bones or not.
- Positron emission tomography (PET scan) – A radioactive material is injected into the body which is absorbed quickly by growing cells (like cancer cells). With the help of the PET scanner, these areas are then located in your body.
Treatment of breast cancer –
Choosing a treatment method for breast cancer depends on the type of cancer, and its stage (0-IV) and usually contains three main treatment method i.e. surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. A patient suffering from breast cancer can choose any of the following treatment options as guided by a doctor –
- Surgery –
Most of the time a woman with breast cancer will undergo surgical removal procedure of the affected part. These surgical therapies are further divided into two types breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy.
a) Breast-conserving surgery -In this, cancer affected area and some surrounding tissue are surgically removed.
b) Mastectomy -In a mastectomy procedure, all the breast tissue is removed if necessary. It has further divided into three parts –
During this surgery, the axillary lymph nodes, chest wall, and the breast are removed by a surgeon.
2.Modified radical mastectomy
During this surgery, the axillary lymph nodes, and the breast are removed by a surgeon.
Some people have a very high risk of breast cancer, so to avoid any kind of breast cancer, a patient undergoes surgery to remove the breasts as per her wish.
- Radiation therapy
In a radiation therapy, high energy rays are targeted on cancer affected area and it destroys the cancer cells. There are two types of radiation therapy –
a) Lumpectomy – In this, the breasts are not removed but a patient will undergo a radiation therapy to remove lumps.
b) External beam radiation – In this, a beam of radiation is focused on the affected area by an external machine.
c) Brachytherapy – In this, instead of using a beam, some radioactive seeds or pellets are implanted into the breast next to cancer.
Chemotherapy is a treatment method of cancers in which some medications are given to a patient which kills the cancer cells. Such medications are given either by an injection or orally. This type of treatment can also be provided after a surgical removal too.
Author: Hiten Patil
Hiten is Content Writer and He write about all platform like health and wellness related blog and other platform as well