Stages of Mouth cancer
Oral Cancers are generally staged in the following way depending upon tumor size and area infected:
- Stage 1: Tumor size under 1 inch across
- Stage 2: Tumor size from 1 to 2 inches
- Stage 3: Tumor size over 2 inches, it has spread to the nearby lymph node. A lymph node is not more than 1 inch across.
- Stage 4: Cancer affects tissues around the mouth, lips, and nearby lymph nodes; or it might spread to full body
Each stage of cancer decides which treatments are to be followed to cure it.
Causes of Oral cancer
Oral Cancer occurs at any part of the mouth which allows a genetic mutation to grow cells without control. At first, oral cancer appears in one part of the mouth, then spread to other parts of the mouth, from head to neck, and might be at rest of the body.
Squamous cell carcinoma-
Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of Mouth cancers which occurs from a line of the lips and the inside of the mouth.
There are many risk factors due to which cancer occurs. But here is a list of highest causing risk factors noted till now-
Tobacco and alcohol
Smokers have 3 times higher probability of getting mouth cancer as compared to nonsmokers. And people who smoke and drink have up to 30 times higher probability of getting oral cancer than those who do not smoke and drink.
Other risk factors include:
- Excessive sun exposure to your lips gets affected by Ultraviolet (UV) rays.
- Tobacco use of any kind, including cigarettes, chewing tobacco and snuff.
- High consumption of alcohol
- A sexually transmitted virus called human papillomavirus (HPV)
- A weakened immune system
- A regular diet which includes red meat, processed meat, and fried foods.
- Frequent Acidity also is known as Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), a digestive condition where acid from the stomach leaks back up to the throat
- Might occur due to earlier radiation treatment, or radiotherapy, in the head, neck, or both.
- Regularly chewing betel nuts
- Exposure to certain chemicals, such as sulfuric acid, asbestos, and formaldehyde.
Click to know more- Treatment methods for mouth cancer or oral cancer.
The United Kingdom’s National Health Service (NHS) concluded that there is a very less probability of getting mouth cancer due to broken or jagged teeth.
- Mouth cancer can complications are Dysphagia, which means difficulty in swallowing. This is the main complication of mouth cancer. Surgery or radiotherapy might affect the action of the tongue, mouth, or throat and makes swallowing process difficult.
Dysphagia might lead to malnutrition and food can go down the wrong way which leads to choking, lung infections, or aspiration pneumonia.
- Speaking problems might occur before or after treatment. A speech therapist can teach the patient to perform some exercises that will develop vocal movements.
- Sometimes food particles enter the patients’ lungs, and if the tests showed positive results then the patient should learn exercises that improve their swallowing. In this test, a short-term feeding tube might be directly connected to the stomach. The patient is asked to follow a special diet who are having continued problems.
4. Depression, frustration, irritation, stress, and anxiety may also occur.
Prevention tips for mouth cancer
You can change few lifestyles which can reduce the risk of mouth cancer.
However, there is no proof of ways to prevent mouth cancer. But, you can reduce your risk of mouth cancer if you follow the tips given below-
- Quitting tobacco
Using tobacco in the form of smoked or chewed. The cells in your mouth are exposed to dangerous cancer-causing chemicals.
- Avoid excessive sun exposure
Always avoid getting excess exposure to sun and use sunscreen on the lips for protection from UV rays.
Protect the skin nearby your lips from the sun by staying in the shed and wearing a broad-brimmed hat that will effectively cover your mouth and entire face.
- Avoid Alcohol
Consuming alcohol in moderation or not at all depending on the stage of mouth cancer you acquired.
Excess consumption of alcohol can irritate the cells in your mouth, making you more prone to mouth cancer. If you choose to drink alcohol in limited quantity, you might shield yourself from getting oral cancer. It is advised to have 1 drink a day if you’re female or 2 drinks a day if you’re a male. Do not get addicted to alcohol it harms your body in multiple ways other than mouth cancer.
- Avoiding junk foods, saturated fats, and processed meats
Always avoid junk foods, it will affect your gums and teeth and might lead to mouth cancer. Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables and have a lot of seasonal foods. The vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables will help you in reducing your risk of mouth cancer.
- See your dentist regularly
Always have a scheduled routine for a dental exam. Ask your dentist to inspect your entire mouth even if you do not find any symptoms of oral cancer.
NOTE- Studies found that people who exercise regularly and follow a healthy diet, with plenty of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, olive oil, fish oil, and small amounts of meat. Such people have a lower chance of developing cancer of all types.
Author: Hiten Patil
Hiten is Content Writer and He write about all platform like health and wellness related blog and other platform as well